Remember a long time ago…..you posted on the Discussion Form the one Standard that you would like to work on during this class and the one that you believed that you had fairly well mastered….. Take time to consider now how your confidence has grown since the first day of class
PRINCIPLES AND STANDARDS FOR LEGAL RESEARCH COMPETENCY
PRINCIPLE I: A SUCCESSFUL LEGAL RESEARCHER POSSESSES FOUNDATIONAL KNOWLEDGE OF THE LEGAL SYSTEM AND LEGAL INFORMATION SOURCES, INCLUDING ANALYTICAL TOOLS.
PRINCIPLE II: A SUCCESSFUL LEGAL RESEARCHER GATHERS INFORMATION THROUGH EFFECTIVE AND EFFICIENT RESEARCH STRATEGIES.
PRINCIPLE III: A SUCCESSFUL LEGAL RESEARCHER CRITICALLY EVALUATES INFORMATION.
PRINCIPLE IV: A SUCCESSFUL LEGAL RESEARCHER APPLIES INFORMATION EFFECTIVELY TO RESOLVE A SPECIFIC ISSUE OR NEED.
PRINCIPLE V: A SUCCESSFUL LEGAL RESEARCHER DISTINGUISHES BETWEEN ETHICAL AND UNETHICAL USES OF INFORMATION, AND UNDERSTANDS THE LEGAL ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH THE DISCOVERY, USE, OR APPLICATION OF INFORMATION.
The Principles are broad statements of foundational, enduring values related to skilled legal research, as endorsed by the American Association of Law Libraries.
The Standards provide a set of more specific applications of those norms or habits that demonstrate one’s commitment to and attainment of the principles.
The Competencies are activities that demonstrate knowledge and skill. Competencies provide concrete measures or indicators of successful achievement of the abilities required to meet the standards.
Remember that you can find Concepts when you use Westlaw Headnotes as a part of the Search Process
REMEMBER THE WESTLAW KEY UNLOCKS KNOWLEDGE!
Here is a link to an article that should brighten your day!
Forms and Search Queries (CALI Lessons and Assessment Tool)
- On Lexis Advance, you can find Forms under Content Type and then FORMS. Then you can filter by state or by Practice Area.
On Westlaw Edge, you can find Forms under Content Types and then FORMS. Then you have the filter by Forms by State or Forms by Topic.
Both platforms are offering Forms from the materials available on their platforms which means, in all probability, the forms are from different resources. So while you have both platforms available to you, search for specific forms on both Lexis Advance and Westlaw Edge and analyze the materials received.
- Remember when you are searching for forms, do not use the terms “plaintiff” or “defendant” or other general terms. Use terms that describe the issue at hand. For example, use “substitution” and “death, ” if you are looking for a motion to substitute the executor of the estate for the deceased plaintiff in an action that the deceased deceased plaintiff filed to recover a sum of money.
One of the features of many bar bar journals or other communications from the bar is the inclusion of Discipline and Other Regulator Notices. If they are available to you, be sure to read so that you know who as been disciplined, etc. Here is a link for the Washington State Bar Journal. https://wabarnews.wsba.org/wabarnews/june_2020/MobilePagedReplica.action?pm=2&folio=52#pg54
Another place to find out if a member of the bar has been disciplined is the Members’ Directory or Legal Directory or something similar. These directories are available to the public. Here is a link to the legal directory on the website of the Washington State Bar Association – https://www.mywsba.org/personifyebusiness/LegalDirectory.aspx
Another feature is that bar journals publish pertinent articles of interest to bar. First, a question. Is a Third District Court of Appeals’ decision ever binding on a circuit court (trial court) within the jurisdiction of the Second District Court of Appeals? Second, an answer. Yes. The article addressing this issue is titled “CONTROLLING JURISDICTION” AND THE DUTY TO DISCLOSE ADVERSE AUTHORITY: FLORIDA’S DISTRICT COURTS OF APPEAL REIGN SUPREME ON MATTERS OF FIRST IMPRESSION by Keith Rizzardi. https://www.floridabar.org/the-florida-bar-journal/controlling-jurisdiction-and-the-duty-to-disclose-adverse-authority-floridas-district-courts-of-appeal-reign-supreme-on-matters-of-first-impression/
Bye for now.
Rule 11 Sanctions:
As you do legal research over the years, you need to be sure the understand the iterative process of legal research and understand the “ins and outs” of all legal or non-legal resources you use – know and understand the content AND know and understand how to access the content and to use the tools that the publisher provides. Remember, that Lexis and Westlaw are platforms that contain thousands of resources, including the all of the University of Miami law reviews, the Florida statutes, treatises by former and current University of Miami faculty members, etc. How you approach these platforms is important.
For example, If you are looking for Florida statutes, remember to “filter” to Florida statutes, before you begin your search.
You need to really look at every screen or print page and understand what features it provides. And, when you see a feature, consider how you will use it. Also, features will be continually changing and you need to need to understand the changes and use them to your advantage. So many times when I am using Lexis, Westlaw, Bloomberg Law, Fastcase, etc., I see a feature that I did not notice or I use a feature that I knew was there but used it a different way!
And, as a heads up, the look and feel of Lexis Advance will be changing the first week of August. So take advantage of the change and take a good relook at Lexis Advance.
And, and, researching need not be a completely solo event. Talk to colleagues, librarians, , etc. about your research and you will, in all probability, get some good tips and insight from those conversations.
Point of Views:
Yes, algorithms are all around us. Our responsibility is to understand how they work so that our searches work with the algorithms. You will need to know how to use the resources that you are provided. You may have access to Westlaw only. Or Lexis only. Or Fastcase only. Or Online Sunshine only. You need to be sure that whichever resource you use, you understand how to use it in the best manner possible and understand how to search efficiently and effectively. It will take some work in the beginning but it will be time well spent. Again, talk to others (see above), including the resources that your resource provides. For example, talk to the Reference Attorneys at Westlaw.
The posts are fascinating. As you think where you “go” for news and where “others” go for news, remember when you are working and using your law degree, that you will need to understand what sources your clients. colleagues and supervisors, friends of all ages, etc. use for general and business news. If a major client reads Aviation Weekly, then you may want to take a look and understand what it offers. You may also want to check to see if it available online from a Library. Or find a good blog on aviation. Be creative!
Remember that KeyCite and Shepard’s are not just useful for finding out information on the validity of a case!
Also, don’t assume that all citators work alike. There are differences. Be sure that you understand the differences. Talk to others, including the Reference Librarians.
Westlaw Edge just introduced a new KeyCite feature – Overruling Risk. Be sure you understand this feature works and also, always, always, read all cases involved.
Here is a Westlaw Edge recording https://store.legal.thomsonreuters.com/law-products/ns/westlaw-edge-training-and-support/keycite-overruling-risk
Headnotes are useful for the following reasons:
1) they are useful to find cases dealing with the same issue.
2) they are useful because when you click on them you are taken to the place in the case where the matter in the Headnote is discussed
3) they allow you to easily find out how other jurisdictions have dealt with the matter in the Headnote.
Do take the opportunity when you are working on your Research Guide to use Headnotes. Then you will have the knowledge to use them efficiently and effectively in practice. If you have any questions, please let me know.
Bye for now.
Inspector Generals Inspector Generals from a number of agencies have been in the news. This question provided you the opportunity to learn more about these positions. If you would like to keep track of the Inspector General vacancies – this is a website that you might monitor. POGO – https://www.pogo.org/database/inspector-general-vacancy-tracker/
Administrative Law Judges It is important to understand the position of Administrative Law Judge and how they are hired. Here is link to the Office of Personnel Management which administers the Administrative Law Judge examination through which agencies make competitive service appointments of Administrative Law Judges (ALJ). https://www.opm.gov/services-for-agencies/administrative-law-judges/
Where can you find an explanation of a final federal regulation which includes summaries of comments submitted and the agency’s response to those comments? When you are advising a client on how a federal regulation might be interpreted, you may want to review the Agency’s explanation of the final regulation. You can do so! All you need to do is find the Federal Register issue which includes the Final Regulation. Remember, the Final Regulation must be published in an issue of the Federal Register. There needs to be notice that a regulation is going into effect. Otherwise, no one would know! Along with the Final Regulation, you will find the preamble which explains the Agency’s reasoning.
Florida Constitution My take away is that sometimes when you assume that you are looking for an on-point statute, you will find instead an on-point constitutional amendment. I would not have expected that I would need to research the Constitution to learn more about the confinement of pigs during pregnancy.
TITLE IX All of the laws passed in the legislature in the same year are arranged in chronological order and are called session laws. Session laws are the text of the law as originally passed. For example, you may hear attorneys refer to Title IX of the Education Amendments Act of 1972. They are talking about a specific title in the session law, Education Amendments Act of 1972. You can find Title IX of the Education Amendments Act of 1972 in 42 U.S.C. sections 1681-1688. Generally, the session laws are called Acts when they are passed by the Congress.
Legal Information Institute – Cornell We believe that everyone should be able to read and understand the laws that govern them, without cost. We carry out this vision by: 1) Publishing law online, for free; 2) Creating materials that help people understand law; 3) Exploring new technologies that make it easier for people to find the law. From the LII website. LII is an excellent place to find the U.S. States Code and federal cases. And adding the Explanation of the Constitution from the Congressional Research Service is a real benefit. If you use LII a lot, you may want to consider a donation. The reason that they have ads on the site is because they are not fully funded by Cornell and donors.
When you are researching statutes so you always need to use the current version? This was not a trick question, but you need to remember that you may need to research the statute that was in place at the time of the matter. For example, if your client committed the crime in 2019, then you need to research the criminal statutes that were enforce at that time. Also, you need to be sure that all the cases you are considering are interpreting the statute that was enforce at the time of the crime. And, of course, it you were researching a matter that was dealing with regulations, you again need to be sure that you are relying on regulations that were enforced at the time of the matter.